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Albany County is a county in the state of New York, United States. Its northern border is formed by the Mohawk River, at its confluence with the Hudson River, which is to the east. As of the 2020 United States Census, the population was 314,848. The county seat and largest city is Albany, which is also the state capital of New York. As originally established by the English government in the colonial era, Albany County had an indefinite amount of land, but has had an area of 530 square miles (1,400 km2) since March 3, 1888. The county is named for the Duke of York and of Albany, who became James II of England (James VII of Scotland). Albany County constitutes the central core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Albany County was one of the original twelve counties created by New York State in 1683. At that time it included all of the present State of Vermont, all of New York State north of the counties of Dutchess and Ulster, and stretched west to the Pacific Ocean.  On July 3, 1766, Cumberland County was created from a part of Albany County now in Vermont, followed on March 16, 1770 by Gloucester County, also now in Vermont.  Then, on March 12, 1772, Albany County was divided into the counties of Albany, Tryon (now Montgomery), and Charlotte (now Washington). From 1772 to 1786 Albany County included, besides the present territory of Albany County, all of the present Columbia, Rensselaer, Saratoga, and Schenectady Counties, parts of the present Greene and Washington Counties, and a piece of what is now southwestern Vermont.  In 1786, Columbia County was split off from Albany County.  In 1791, Rensselaer and Saratoga Counties were split off from Albany County. Also the Town of Cambridge was transferred to Washington County.  In 1795, Schoharie County was created from parts of Albany and Otsego Counties.  In 1800, Greene County was created from parts of Albany and Ulster Counties.  In 1809, Schenectady County was split off from Albany County.


Albany County is in the east central part of New York State, extending southward and westward from the point where the Mohawk River joins the Hudson. Its eastern boundary is the Hudson River; a portion of its northern boundary is the Mohawk River.  According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,381 km (533 mi). 1,356 km (523 mi) of it is land and 25 km (10 mi) of it is water. The total area is 1.83% water.   The terrain of the county ranges from flat near the Hudson and Mohawks to high and hilly to the southwest, where the Catskills begin. The highest point is one of several summits near Henry Hill at approximately 2,160 feet (658 m) above sea level; the lowest point is slightly above sea level along the Hudson. 


As of the 2020 US Census, there were 314,848 people in 126,540 households residing in the county. The population density was 563 people per square mile (217/km2). There were 134,072 housing units at an average density of 248 per square mile (96/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 78.2% White, 12.7% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.8% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from other races, and 2.5% from two or more races. 4.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.2% were of Irish, 16.0% Italian, 11.0% German, 6.1% English and 5.1% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 90.4% spoke English, 2.7% Spanish and 1.0% Italian as their first language.

There were 124,682 households, out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 22.6% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $42,935, and the median income for a family was $56,724. Males had a median income of $39,838 versus $30,127 for females. The per capita income for the county was $23,345. About 7.2% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.

(Source: Wikipedia
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